United Kingdom
Capital: London
Area: 244 820 km²
Population: 65 648 000

United Kingdom

United Kingdom (UK) consists of the island of Great Britain (GB) and several smaller islands, which are often called British Isles, and the northern part of the island of Ireland. United Kingdom consists of 4 countries: England, Scotland, Wales and North Ireland. The full name is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and it represents the union between its countries.

Which sea and which channel separates Great Britain from the European mainland? Which sea is located between Great Britain and Ireland? Work with the map.

The British islands are separated from the European mainland only by a fairly narrow English Channel. Their development was somewhat different compared to rest of the world. United Kingdom was at a certain time (from the end of 17th to mid-19th century) the most developed state in the world. The main merit of this was a well-developed fleet that linked the islands with its lands outside Europe - Colonies. It also possessed a wealth of minerals and natural resources. Its diverse agricultural crops were very important for the rapid development of the country’s industry. United Kingdom has willingly given up most of its colonies, without any violence. That is why UK still has good relations with most of its former colonies, and this represents the Commonwealth of Nations, formerly the British Commonwealth. The British monarch is formal head of state in several countries, for example in Canada, Australia, New Zealand.

Find out which major states were British colonies. You will find them in all the populated continents. You can use this knowledge from a history or historical map from the very first half of the 20th century. (Theme / topic for a small project.)

Nature

The coast of Great Britain consists predominantly of steep rocky cliffs with smaller beaches The coast of Great Britain consists predominantly of steep rocky cliffs with smaller beaches

Natural conditions of Ireland and Great Britain islands, which are on the western side of Europe, is affected by the Atlantic Ocean, dominating from the west. That's why the climate is characterised by heavy precipitations and relatively small differences between summer and winter temperatures. Snow can be found during the winter usually only in mountains in the north of Great Britain. Much stronger winds are common on the two islands, compared to Central Europe.

The longest river of GB, Thames, runs through London and long channels connect Thames with other rivers. Waterways are used for the transportation of raw materials and goods. London is a major international destination even though it is around 60 km away from the sea coast.

Population

There is a significant representation of migrants and their descendants in United Kingdom. Most were coming during the 20th century, from the states of the British Commonwealth. In terms of Christian beliefs, UK is prevailed by Protestants. The most widespread is the Anglican Church founded by the Emperor Henry VIII in defiance towards the Pope.

Agriculture

Sheep farming is a traditional part of British agriculture Sheep farming is a traditional part of British agriculture

The agriculture of the two island states is significantly oriented on animal production. Traditional is cattle and sheep breeding. Horse breeding is also very important, since racing is a major element in both Irish and British traditions. United Kingdom excels in sheep wool production and products thereof, as well as production of milk, meat and certain types of alcohol. Plants requiring less heat are mostly grown in UK. In the foreground, for example, it is the production of potatoes.

Industry

Ťažba ropy a zemného plynu v Severnom mori

In the past, the UK industry was based on an extensive mining of domestic raw materials, mainly black coal, which is rapidly declining. UK is connected to mining metallurgy and heavy machinery, the production of which has also declined significantly. However, United Kingdom does not have significant energy problems because in the 70s of the 20th century oil bearing were discovered in the North Sea.

At present, UK is focused on a more modern industry. UK is especially famous for Rolls Royce and Jaguar. Several brands originating from Continental Europe are sold in UK under a different brand name, and have special modifications. Kingdom is still one of the leading shipbuilders and has large aircraft production.

For Irish and British people, the rest of Europe is "the continent".
What do you think are the modifications of the cars sold in the United Kingdom?

Own brands also represent the electrical and electronics industry. These industries, like the chemical industry, are on the rise. The local textile industry is a huge tradition, but nowadays it struggles to compete with cheaper products, mainly from Asia.

Which fabrics come from the UK? One is named after one of the largest city in England and is also known as corduroy. The name of the second type of local fabric is monosyllabic and has the same name as the river that flows across the border region in Scotland and England. Garments produced from this fabric are very durable.

Cities

The Tower Bridge was completed in 1894, the lower part of the bridge, between the towers, can be opened in order for ships to navigate under the bridge The Tower Bridge was completed in 1894, the lower part of the bridge, between the towers, can be opened in order for ships to navigate under the bridge

The capital city of UK is London, where the country’s parliament is located, the seat of government and the royal family’s official city residence. It's also one of three largest cities in Europe. Many historical and cultural monuments are in London. Houses of Parliament, Tower Bridge, Buckingham Palace, Big Ben, St. Paul Cathedral are just a few of them. Other cities, such as Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow (the largest the city of Scotland) grew mainly as big industrial cities thanks to their large ports. The university towns of Oxford and Cambridge are well known around the world.

This picture can be scanned using mobile application
This picture can be scanned using mobile application

Specific is a British countryside with many castles - the magnificent mansions of former and present noblemen.

Some monuments (e. g. admired stone monoliths around Stonehenge and sites in Cornwall) are dated before Christ. Therefore, they are often referred to as prehistoric.

UK is known for its love of drinking tea. “Tea at Five“ is both an expression for supper and sometimes for a small social event. This started with the opportunities for cheap tea imports from the British former colonies. The conversation in UK is often about the weather.

Various sports are popular in UK, such as football, cricket, rugby. The double-decker busses ride in London, as well as in other cities. Red telephone booths are slowly becoming historical jewels, but typically dressed police constables and sergeants with custodian helmets are still part of UK, in England and Wales. There is plenty attention of the media on the royal family, which is well respected around the world.

The Royal Palace in Edinburgh, capital of Scotland, is visited by the royal family several times over the course of a year The Royal Palace in Edinburgh, capital of Scotland, is visited by the royal family several times over the course of a year
This picture can be scanned using mobile application
The origin of stone structures near the town of Stonehenge is not entirely clear to historians The origin of stone structures near the town of Stonehenge is not entirely clear to historians

Interesting facts

Scotland was an independent state until 1707. After joining the Kingdom of England, it retained a degree of independence. Scotland has its own legal system, judiciary and education at all levels, which differs from education in England and Wales. It also has its own bank system and banknotes, which are only valid in the territory of the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom has practically no uniform symbol. The lion could be seen as a symbol of monarchy, but it represents specifically England. Other English animal symbols are a red fox and a bulldog, and a rose is standing out among plant symbols. The symbols of Scotland are mainly thistle and typical checkered fabric, which is also used for traditional male skirts, the kilts. The dragon is the most famous symbol of Wales.
Scottish and British banknotes of equal value Scottish and British banknotes of equal value
Edinburgh - New Town Edinburgh - New Town
What is UK known for? The Queen and the whole royal family; world-renowned playwright William Shakespeare, Detective Sherlock Holmes as a fictional character; sports: football, rugby, cricket; horse racing; left hand side driving (also in Ireland); Lake Loch Ness.